Remediation services

RemedX has over 15 years' experience of providing cutting edge, design-led remediation contracting solutions. From small projects through to the management of multimillion pound programmes, we have done it all. Click on the links below for more information about the remediation techniques we currently offer. For more detailed descriptions of how these are applied or how they could benefit you, please do not hesitate to get in touch!

Air- and biosparging

Air sparging entails injecting air into an aquifer. The process physically strips contaminants from dissolved and adsorbed phase. Contaminated vapours are removed from the subsurface via an extraction system. The vapours are typically treated ex situ before being discharged to the atmosphere. This technique can also be used to introduce oxygen and promote bioremediation (biosparging).

This technique is ideally suited to treat hydrocarbon-impacted saturated soils, and groundwater.

RemedX examples


RemedX's bioremediation expertise includes the following:


Biopiles rely on the principles of bioremediation to remove contaminants from the adsorbed phase, and from pore spaces. Treatment cells are constructed and the soil placed. Depending upon the type of contaminants, the treatment will be passive or active. For the latter, a series of extraction pipes are installed through the soil. A vacuum is applied to these pipes to induce airflow, introducing oxygen that is then utilised by the soil's native microbial population to promote bioremediation.

Biopiles are well suited to treating soil contaminated with light to medium chain hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds.


Contaminated soil is excavated and placed into windrows, which are covered with water-repellent fleeces when not in use. Periodically, the windrows are turned using our specialist windrow turning machine to introduce oxygen into the soil pores. The oxygen is utilised by the native microbial population to biodegrade the contaminants. Where necessary, nutrients can be added to the soil to enhance the conditions for bioremediation.

In situ

RemedX examples

Chemical oxidation

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves adding chemicals to soil and groundwater to destroy contaminants through oxidation. It is a very fast and effective technique.

ISCO is a technique suitable for treating hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. It can also be used to treat pesticides.

Dual-phase extraction (DPE) and multiphase extraction (MPE)

Dual-phase extraction (DPE)

Dual-phase extraction (DPE) is a technique used to remove dissolved phase contaminants and non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). In a typical clean up, a series of groundwater extraction wells are constructed and pumps installed. These pumps are capable of removing both NAPL and groundwater simultaneously. Pumping results in a cone of depression being formed, encouraging NAPL to flow towards the well along the hydraulic gradient. DPE is used to gain hydraulic control over the aquifer and can prevent off-site migration of contaminants. It also effectively exposes the unsaturated zone, so that a vacuum can be applied to strip residual contaminants from the adsorbed phase.

Dual-phase extraction is used to treat groundwater contaminated with dissolved phase and separate phase compounds. It is used to gain hydraulic control. Dual-phase extraction can be used in conjunction with soil vapour extraction.


Multiphase extraction (MPE)

Multiphase extraction is a technique by which a vacuum is applied to the subsurface via a recovery lance. It can recover NAPL, contaminated groundwater and contaminated vapours. The aquifer is dewatered, exposing the unsaturated zone, allowing airflow to be induced and encouraging contaminants to be stripped from the adsorbed phase. Extracted liquids are treated in a water treatment plant before discharge to a foul sewer under licence. (In some instances, it is possible to gain authorisation to re-inject treated water back into the aquifer.) Extracted vapour streams are treated with activated carbon.

Soil and groundwater contamination in low permeability aquifers.  

RemedX example(s)

Light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) skimming

Light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) skimming is a technique that can be used in situ to remove LNAPL from the groundwater surface. Wells are installed so that skimming pumps can also be installed, often into existing wells. LNAPL skimming is a good, short-term emergency response to help prevent off-site migration of free phase contaminants. The LNAPL is transferred to a holding tank before disposal at a suitably licensed facility.

LNAPL contaminated groundwater, especially recent spills.

Monitored natural attenuation (MNA)

Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is not a remediation technology per se. However, it is a viable and cost-effective option for managing the risks posed by contaminated groundwater subsequent to an active remediation scheme where naturally occurring processes in the subsurface can reduce the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume and concentration of contaminants to acceptable levels.

There are many physical, chemical, biological and geochemical parameters that may be used to demonstrate the presence of natural attenuation mechanisms. The process of selecting appropriate determinants for monitoring these mechanisms will depend upon the nature of the contaminant, the site's biochemical environment and the dominant processes under consideration.

Adoption of the MNA approach requires demonstration that natural processes are occurring at a rate that protects the wider environment and achieves remedial objectives within a reasonable time frame. Therefore, a consistent groundwater monitoring network and sampling plan is required. This should include monitoring for the contaminants of concern and its daughter products, and monitoring natural attenuation indicators such as dissolved manganese, dissolved iron, nitrate, sulphate, redox potential, carbon dioxide, dissolved methane, dissolved oxygen and pH.

In recent years, Environment Agency guidance coupled with a greater understanding of natural attenuation processes has led to a wider acceptance of the technique in isolation or conjuction with other remedial techniques.

MNA can provide a remedial solution to sites that have recently been remediated, or as a method in its own right.

Permeable reactive barrier

Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) combine a passive chemical or biological treatment zone with subsurface fluid flow management. Treatment media may include zero-valent iron, chelators, sorbents or a zone prepared to stimulate biodegradation processes. The contaminants are either degraded or retained in the barrier material, which may need to be replaced periodically.

PRBs can be installed as permanent or semi-permanent units. The most commonly used PRB configuration is that of a continuous trench in which the treatment material is backfilled. The trench is perpendicular to and intersects the ground-water plume. It can also be installed as a reactive treatment zone created by direct injection of reactive media into the aquifer (often using direct push rigs).

PRBs can be used to treat contaminated groundwater. The technique is most successfully applied to control migration of contaminants on or off a site.

Soil vapour extraction (SVE)

Soil vapour extraction (SVE), also known as ‘soil venting’, is a technique used to remove contaminants from the unsaturated zone. Extraction wells are installed in the target zone and a vacuum is applied to the wellhead. Airflow is induced in the subsurface to encourage contaminants to move from the absorbed phase to vapour. The contaminated vapour is treated ex situ by passing through activated carbon or a catalytic oxidiser. SVE can be used alone or in conjunction with other techniques such as air sparging or dual-phase extraction.

SVE can be an effective technique to unsaturated soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds. It can be used in conjunction with other remedial techniques such as air sparging and dual-phase extraction.

RemedX example(s)

Steam injection

Steam injection can significantly enhance the volatilisation and mobilisation of volatile organic compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds. The increase in temperature can also decrease the viscosity of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) to encourage flow towards extraction wells where it can be recovered. Steam flooding is always combined with another technology, usually SVE and total fluids pumping. This ensures that the steam-fuelled migration of contaminants is controlled and all are captured. Steam injection is a thorough and fast solution for sites with contaminated soil and groundwater. 

Steam-enhanced recovery is suitable for treatment of soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds. It is also effective in mobilising dense non-aqueous phase liquids.


RemedX is a design-led soil and groundwater remediation specialist. We can design, fabricate, install, operate and maintain in situ and ex situ remediation systems in-house using our own highly experienced personnel and much of our own equipment.

RemedX has been leading the field in remediation for over 15 years and has built up a large portfolio of diverse projects.



For further information on our consulting and contracting services, click the link below.